Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs)

What is a Sexually Transmitted Disease (STD)?

A sexually transmitted disease is a disease that can be passed on through either vaginal, anal, oral sex. Most STD’s are transmitted through the exchange of sexual fluids as well as oral. Sexually transmitted diseases are passed on from one person to another through unprotected sex, genital contact and oral.

Oral sex is the stimulation of the genitals using the mouth and tongue. It is one of the ways that sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are most frequently passed on.

How do you prevent STDs? 

• Using a condom every time you have vaginal or anal sex

• Avoid engaging in oral sex

• Using a condom to cover the penis during sexual intercourse

• Avoid sharing sex toys

• Have protected sex

• Avoid kissing anyone with herpes

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What is Chlamydia?

Chlamydia is a bacterial infection that’s easily cured with antibiotic medicine. It’s one of the most common STD’s, and most people who have chlamydia don’t show any symptoms. Women can get chlamydia in the cervix, rectum or throat; whereas men can get chlamydia inside the penis, rectum or throat.

What are the Symptoms of Chlamydia in Males?

• Pain or burning sensation when urinating

• White cloudy watery discharge from the tip of the penis

• Pain or tenderness in the testicles

What are the Symptoms of Chlamydia in Females?

• Pain or burning sensation when urinating

• Vaginal discharge

• Pain in the lower abdomen after sexual intercourse

• Bleeding during or after sexual intercourse

• Heavy periods can also be a symptom

What are the Treatments for Chlamydia?

• Antibiotics such as Azithromycin treatment is two tablets taken at the same time in one day to help get rid of the infection.

• You shouldn’t have sex until you and your current sexual partner have finished your treatment.

• If you have had one day course of chlamydia treatment, you should avoid having sex for a week afterwards.

• It’s important that your current sexual partner and any other sexual partners which you have had during the last six months are also tested and treated to help prevent the spread of the infection.

male chlamydia diagram
female chlamydia diagram

What is Gonorrhoea?

Gonorrhoea is another bacterial form of STD which is spread when semen, pre-cum, and vaginal fluids get on or inside your genitals, anus or mouth. Gonorrhoea can be passed on even if the penis does not go all the way into the vagina or anus. It is not shared through non sexual physical contact for example sharing drinks, kissing, hugging, holding hands etc.

What are the Symptoms of Gonorrhoea in Males? 

• Pain or burning sensation when urinating

• white, yellow or green discharge from the tip of the penis

• Pain or tenderness in the testicles

• Greater frequency of urination

• Swelling or redness at the opening of the penis

• Persistent sore throat

What are the Symptoms of Gonorrhoea in Females?

• Pain or burning sensation when urinating

• Vaginal discharge (watery, yellow or green)

• Pain in the lower abdomen after or during sexual intercourse

• Bleeding during or after sexual intercourse

• Heavy periods or spotting

• The need to urinate more frequently

• Sore throat

• Fever

• Pain when engaging in sexual intercourse

What are the Treatments for Gonorrhoea?

• Antibiotic called Azithromycin to help treat condition (same as chlamydia).

gonorrhoea male diagram
gonorrhoea female diagram

What is Genital Herpes?

Genital Herpes is a common infection caused by the herpes simplex virus which causes painful blisters on the genitals and surrounding areas. The herpes simplex virus, also known as HSV, is an infection that causes herpes. Herpes can appear in various parts of the body, most commonly on the genitals or mouth. There are two types of the herpes simplex virus.

• HSV-1: Also known as oral herpes, this type can cause cold sores and fever blisters around the mouth and on the face.

• HSV-2: This type is generally responsible for genital herpes outbreaks.

What are the Symptoms of Genital Herpes?

• Fever&flu like symptoms

• Nausea

• Muscle aches

• Painful urination

• Tingling, burning or itching sensation in the area in the area where blisters will appear

• After the initial tingling and itching, one or more clusters of small blisters (sometimes painful) appear which are filled with slightly cloudy liquid. The blisters can be located in different areas in both male and female including:

• In men, genital herpes sores can appear inside or on the penis, scrotum, groin and thighs, on the buttocks and around the anus.

• In women, genital herpes blisters can appear on the labia, inside the vagina, groin&thighs, on the buttocks and around the anus.

What are the Treatments for Genital Herpes?

• Antiviral medication such as aciclovir to help ease the symptoms of the condition.

genital herpes male diagram
genital herpes female diagram

What are Genital Warts?

Genital warts are small, fleshy growths, bumps or skin changes that appear on or around your genital or anal area. Genital warts are caused by the human papilloma virus (HPV). They are a very common STD in the United Kingdom, and while there is no cure for HPV; the symptoms themselves can be treated and managed very effectively.

What are the Symptoms of Genital Warts?

• Small bumps (up to 2-3cm for) that are skin-coloured and often grow in clusters forming a sort of cauliflower shape

• Some people only have one or two warts. When these growths are located directly in the genital area, they are usually soft-to-the-touch and can be either raised or flat.

• Most of the time, genital warts appear in moist areas (e.g. in or around the vagina, anus or groin) and do not cause discomfort or pain. In rare cases, they can be itchy, hurt a bit or bleed – especially if you scratch them.

What are the common areas where Genital Warts can develop in Men?

• anywhere on the penis

• on the scrotum

• inside the urethra (tube where urine comes out)

• around or inside the anus

• on the upper thighs

What are the common areas where Genital Warts can develop in Women?

• around the vulva (the opening of the vagina)

• on the cervix (neck of the womb)

• inside the vagina

• around or inside the anus

• on the upper thighs

What are the Treatments for Genital Warts?

• Topical treatments such as Aldara Cream to help to ease the symptoms.

genital warts diagram
genital warts

What is Bacterial Vaginosis?

Bacterial vaginosis is a bacterial infection in the vagina. This is caused by overgrowth of bacteria in the vagina. It only affects women.

What are the Symptoms of Bacterial Vaginosis?

• An abnormal amount of vaginal discharge

• The vaginal discharge is thin and greyish white

• Foul smelling vagina (fishy/unpleasant smell)

• The vaginal discharge and odour are more noticeable after sexual intercourse

• Pain with sexual intercourse or urination

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